Concrete Slab Lift Asphalt Pavement Lift Soil Stabilization – Pueblo, CO

This highway roundabout located in Pueblo West, Colorado had experienced settling of between 2 to 3 inches in areas of the concrete panels. The settlement had occurred as a result of poorly compacted soils. The settlement of the slabs had created a negative drainage situation, causing water to pool against the curb and gutter instead of draining away from the structure as originally designed.

As part of a larger paving project, Martin Marietta, a heavy highway contractor working on the section of roadway that included this roundabout, needed a solution to lift the settled concrete panels and correct the drainage issues the settlement had caused without ob-structing traffic flow through the rounda-bout and connecting roadways.

CST partnered with Martin Marietta to create a repair plan that would allow traffic to continue to flow through the roundabout while the panels and adjoining asphalt were lifted back to original profile. CST’s technologies were used to repair the settled slabs and pavement. The process employs injecting an expanding structural polymer that densifies and compacts soil, fills voids, and lifts settled concrete and asphalt. A rubberized barrier was used to assist injection crews in staging and protecting injection hoses across the roadway which allowed traffic to safely continue through the roundabout during the repair process. Martin Marietta used a water truck to wet down the roadway and panels to assist CST’s injection crew in locating and correcting the areas of settlement prior to beginning injections.

The settlement and soil compaction issues were efficiently and effectively addressed and corrected while allowing traffic to continue use of the roundabout and roadways during the repair. The con-crete panels and adjacent asphalt pavement were lifted back to original design profile which corrected the drainage problem.

The repair was completed in less than a day, preserving the existing concrete, correcting drainage, and guarding against future damage erosion, settlement, or damage to this roundabout structure and adjacent roadway.

CHALLENGES
Maintaining traffic flow during repair.
Safely staging injection equipment in the roundabout area.
Restore drainage away from the concrete panels.

BENEFITS In situ, no excavation repairs
Little to no downtime
Fast, cost -effective, permanent
Preserves and extends the life of existing structures & pavement

Union Pacific Railroad Crossing Lift Realignment and Soil Stabilization

A Union Pacific Railroad Crossing at the entrance of the Mountain Cement plant located in Laramie Wyoming, had experienced settlement of the precast panels beneath the track.

A soft spot beneath the panels and the presence of water had exacerbated settlement and caused the crossing panels to become misaligned.
Ed Hinker, Union Pacific Track Maintenance Manager, contacted CST to analyze and create a repair plan to provide in situ stabilization and realignment of the crossing.

Due to the location of the crossing, it was imperative that repairs be made quickly, without a lot of disruption to both truck and train traffic utilizing the crossing.

CST partnered with UP maintenance personnel and designed a site specific injection plan to stabilize the soft soils, lift, and realign the precast crossing panels, as well as beneath additional areas of track.

A thorough site investigation was first conducted to identify areas and depths for repair.

CST’s technicians placed injection probes into predetermined locations and depths, installing a high density, expanding structural polymer to stabilize the soft spots in the soil, and lift to realign the settled crossing panels.

Additional areas of subgrade soil were also treated in adjacent track sections leading up to and away from the crossing.
The railroad crossing precast panels were lifted, realigned, and stabilized in a matter of hours. The subgrade soils beneath the panels and areas of track were stabilized to mitigate against additional settlement.

Repairs were made with zero excavation and very little disruption to vehicles accessing the cement plant, or trains utilizing this section of track.

All areas were immediately available for use following the repair.

CST’s soil stabilization and concrete lifting technologies are an efficient and effective way to provide long term, precision repairs without the added expense of lengthy downtime or costly tear out and replace alternatives.

Riverton Utah Commercial Void Fill and Soil Stabilization

In early February of 2018, a major water line break caused significant voiding be- neath the floor slab of a large commercial retail warehouse in Riverton UT. The pressure of the water was so great, in addition to causing large voids beneath the floor, it actually cracked the slab, and push water through the control joints in the concrete, flooding portions of the store. Scott Davis with Kleinfelder Engineering contacted CST concerning the damage, looking for an in situ solution to fill the voids. Soil testing performed after the water line break revealed that the soil compaction beneath the floor was good, but the voided areas would need to be filled. The solution would need to be performed without having to move permanently installed shelving units and merchandise and be completed without a lengthy closure for the business.

CST partnered with Tradesmithe Property Management and Kleinfelder Engineering to design an in situ repair plan to fill the voids and provide continuous , uniform subgrade support. The solution needed to provide a minimum of 6,000 PSF compressive strength of the soil and maintain dimensional stability for the life of the structure. CST’s in situ soil stabilization technologies employs a high density, expansive structural polymer injected through small holes directly through the floor slab and into the subgrade soils. The polymer, in it’s liquid state travels along finding voided areas and expands to fill and re-compact the compromised soil. Injection holes are very small and are filled with grout once repairs are complete. Once cured, the polymer reaches a much higher compressive strength that easily exceeded what was required for this project.

Once all voided areas were identified and marked, CST installed ESP material and completed void fill on a total area of 26,000 SQ FT.  All repair work was completed in 3 nights, allowing the business to stay open during the day.

Due to the highly advanced injection techniques and equipment, permanent shelving units and merchandise did not have to be moved in order to make the repairs.

The repair process efficiently and effectively restored compaction to the sub- grade soils and provided a solid solution to extend and preserve the useful life of the floor slab and structure.

CST’s polymer injection process does not require excavation and is environmentally friendly while providing fast, clean, permanent results.

  • Locate all voided areas and complete repairs without moving permanently installed shelving features and
    merchandise.
  • Permanently installed shelving, fix- tures, and appliances could not be moved during the repair.
  • No excavation required.
  • Environmentally friendly.
  • Little to no disruption to business.
  • Extends the useful life of existing slabs and structures.

Campbell County Detention Center – Gillette, WY

Concrete Stabilization Technologies, Inc., partnered with Campbell County Public Works Department and CEI Engineering, to repair the foundation of the Campbell County Detention Center in Gillette Wyoming during the summer of 2001.

Column Stabilization, Interior Wall Lifting, Floor & Thickened Slab Lifting, Void Fill, and Soil Densification were preformed in the facility to correct a number of settlement issues. Crews began on the outside columns of the building, lifting and stabilizing exterior columns. Using the CST DI process, the soil was stabilized around the columns, voids filled, and columns were placed back on original center. Post testing of the soils in the area proved significant increase in the soil densification, arresting any further settlement issues from occurring. Crews continued work inside the facility, with injections placed to lift and stabilize the floor slabs and lift walls back to grade.

Work performed at the Campbell County Detention Center was done during normal hours of operations, with very minimal disruption to staff or residents of the facility. Security of the residents was not compromised due to the non-intrusive methods and procedures employed by the CST technology. Work was performed in situ, and by utilizing the CST technologies, Campbell County not only saved money by avoiding a rip out and replace scenario, but also avoided the hassle of having to relocate residents and staff. The project was completed on time and below the original estimate. Repairs made to the Campbell County Detention Center over a decade ago, are still holding strong!

Home Foundation Lift – Pine Haven, WY

Concrete Stabilization Technologies, Inc., partnered with Homeowner, Jim Noecker, and Engineer, Ed Scott, P.E. of CEI Engineering to provide a solution for Jim Noecker’s residence in Pine Haven Wyoming. Since construction of the Noecker residence, the home had experienced cracking & separation of the walls, doors sticking, and deformation of the roof. The problems were thought to be caused at least partially by heave or swelling shale in the subdivision where the residence was built.
Dennis Russell with STRATA Geotechnical Engineering performed soil tests. Dennis determined that swelling soils were not a problem, and a plan was developed for repairs using CST’s technologies.

The original estimate for this project was $59,850 plus $8,000 if resistance piers were needed to get the lift of the residence. A second CST truck was used for the final lift of the home. As a result, assistance of resistance piers was not necessary to return the home and floors to grade. The home was lifted approximately three inches on the side with most settlement. Final elevations of the foundation and floors were within 1/2 inch tolerance and soils were stabilized.

The foundation still has the original design and by using the CST technologies, we do not have to worry about having half of the foundation on piers and half on spread footers. This is an important feature of using the CST technologies to prevent future problems in having mixed foundation combining deep foundations (piers) with shallow foundations (footings) on structures.

Final construction cost for repairing and stabilizing was below the original estimate and came in under budget at a total of $55,743.00.

The Homeowner, Jim Noecker, contacted CST in May of 2012 with an update of their residence, stating that they are very impressed! Jim stated that there was “not one new crack or sign of any further move-ment. You guys did a great job and the house seems very stable now. No doors out of square, roof looks normal, and the deck is now level. Glad to see it made it at least one year with the fix and hopefully many more to come. Thanks again for your expertise!” – Jim Noecker

Crescent Electric Supply – Gillette, WY

Structure Characteristics: The building is a single story structure approximately 80 feet by 125 feet in size and consists of wood post and beam framing, such as a pole building. The walls are constructed of wood posts, embedded in concrete piers at approximately 8 feet on center. The posts provide the vertical and lateral support for the walls and roof. The roof is framed with preengineered wood roof trusses. The floor of the building consists of a 6 inch thick reinforced concrete slab on grade. A septic tank and a leach field are situated along the west side of the building.

Problems That Prompted Repair: The building and concrete slab on grade were experiencing settlement. The settlement had caused cracks in the concrete slab on grade and interior finishes of the office area of the building. The majority of settlement occurred along the west side of the building and the concrete slab on grade in the warehouse were cracked the entire length of the building. Cracking ranged 3 to 8 feet east of the west wall. A slab construction joint existing in the center of the building and spans north/south. The joint appeared to have separated as a result of the slab settlement along the building.

Inspection/Evaluation Methods: A structural Observation and Geotechnical Soil Study were performed. Field investigation also performed with the use of a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP). The primary purpose of this tool is to locate the weak zones in the soils and quantify the comparative degree of ground densification improvement achieved by the deep injection process, as exhibited by the increased number of percussive blows required to penetrate the treated soil mass, when compared to a pre-injection test performed within the confines of the treated mass.

Test Results: The geotechnical study and structural observation indicated that the soils underlying the foundation and concrete slab on grade consisted of soft clays with considerably high moisture content. These soils are notorious for settlement and collapse upon wetting. It was determined that the settlement had high potential to continue if the problem was not addressed. Separation of the slab joint was determined to have been caused by the settlement of underlying soils. DCP Test results indicated weak soils at depths of 7 feet.

Causes of Deterioration: Deterioration was caused by a leak from a collapsed water tank in 2008 west of the building, effluent from the septic system, surface runoff, or a combination of these influences. Soft clay soils surrounding and beneath the structure and slab contributed to the settlement and associated damaged slab and interior finishes of the building.

Repair System Selection: Selection of the repair system was based on recommendations resulting from structural evaluation of the building. Due to the soil conditions and probability of future settlement, “Deep Injection”, using expanding structural Geo-Polymer, was chosen for correcting the settlement issues.
Site Preparation: Penetrometer testing was performed and reviewed. Mapping of the warehouse floor was completed. Profiles for settlement and finish target elevations were performed.

Demolition Method: No demolition of the existing concrete slab on grade was necessary due to
the utilization of the “internationally patented Geo-polymer injection system”. All soil remediation work was completed “In Situ”.

Surface Preparation: Surface preparation of the slab, and soil surrounding the outer perimeter of the building, prior to injecting was unnecessary. This is due to the unique nature of the expanding Geo-Polymer technology utilized. Minimal cleanup of the joint area was performed before epoxy was injected and caulking repairs were performed in the west joints and wide joint in the center of the warehouse. The crack repair and joint sealing was performed in the floor slab. Cracks were mechanically routed and gravity fed structural epoxy was injected into the cracks. Caulking of the joints was completed using a urethane sealant as specified by the engineer. Approximately 136 linear feet of cracks and approximately 124 linear feet of control joints were primed and caulked.

Application Method Selection: Repairs required utilization of a specialty technique. The foundation type (posts embedded in shallow concrete piers) does not lend itself well to helical pier stabilization. Stabilization of the underlying soils, individual concrete piers, and the concrete slab on grade itself needed to be modified in order to arrest future settlement. Therefore, the best method of application and method of repair was determined to be the injection of expanding structural Geo-Polymer.

Repair Process Execution: Initial testing of the soils were performed and analyzed to determine injection depths necessary to stabilize the underlying soil structure. Areas to be addressed were mapped and injection ports were prepared beforehand to accommodate frozen soil conditions at the time of repair. The injection of the patented Geo-Polymer material was used to penetrate deeply into the sub grade at depths of an estimated seven feet. Voids beneath the slabs were filled, and slabs lifted back to original elevations. Sub grade soils were stabilized using this Internationally Patented Technology. Deep Injection permanently altered the soil structure, thus stabilizing and preventing future settlement. Once soils were treated, the slab joints were sealed and caulked with epoxy as specified by the project engineer.

Structural floor repair: Sub contractor, gravity fed low viscosity epoxy into the floor cracks to re- establish the original monolithic strength.
Control joint sealants: Sub contractor mechanically cleaned the sides of the existing control joint and caulked with urethane primer and sealant.

Unforeseen Conditions Found: The work was performed in January which added concern for frozen ground and cold temperatures. The settlement originated below frost line. The Project Superintendent made additional efforts to keep equipment warm. The exothermic reaction of the Geo-polymer materials provided further protection against frozen conditions.

It was decided to perform the work on the client’s preferred schedule if possible. One of the unique characteristics of the Geo-Polymer is that it will not freeze during injections (it is not a water based material). Since unit weight was minimized and polymer did not add burden to weakened sub- grade, frozen ground and cold temps did not interfere with the work schedule.

Special Features and benefits of Geo-Polymer Deep Injection Repair Process:

  • Eliminated cause of settlement and future potential settlement resulting from the water spill.
  • Raised building and slabs to original elevation.
  • Saved concrete slab, and interior finish from further damage.
  • No downtime to business, timely, safe, clean.
  • All work done from above ground without excavation, In-Situ.
  • The Business was able to remain fully open during repairs with very little disruption to activities.
  • Floor sub-grade was restored to give full support for heavy forklift traffic.
  • Structural repair of floors was completed with full co-ordination of warehouse use.
  • Project was completed using permanent and economical, “Deep Injection” of Geo-Polymer.