Marriott’s Mountainside Resort – Park City, UT

The Mountainside Marriott is a luxury winter ski and summertime vacation resort, nestled in the Wasatch Mountains, in Park City Utah. Park City is a beautiful historic Utah town located about half an hour east of Salt Lake City. Early pioneers and settlers traveled through this region on the Mormon Trail, and in the early 1880’s large beds of precious metals were discovered in the area and the mining boom began. Much of the area’s soil has been affected by early silver mining activity and much of the Mountainside Marriott resort had been built on old mine tailings.

Concrete Stabilization Technologies, Inc. was contacted by the Park City Mountainside Marriott’s Chief Engineer, Dave Martin in November of 2013 concerning the resort’s pool and hot tub area that had suffered significant settlement, posing trip hazards and unsafe conditions for its many visitors. Mr. Martin and CST Field Consultant, Scott Paswaters, had known each other through a prior work relationship at the Zermatt Resort in Midway, Utah. CST had completed a similar project there in 2012.

Two site visits were made to the resort in November and the affected areas surveyed. The 68 foot concrete deck slab around the pool showed settlement of one half to one inch differential. One end of the pool itself showed settlement of approximately three inches and a notable void. The upper hot tub on the south end of the pool had a slab settlement similar to the pool, in an approximate 18 foot section.

Dynamic Cone Penetrometer testing was proposed to accurately determine soil conditions in the settled areas. An estimate for repair was given based on the findings of the DCP tests.
With the 2013 Winter Ski season gearing up, the resort decided it would be best to wait and begin repairs in the spring of 2014.

Follow up on the project was made in February of 2014 and the work was coordinated with other contractors involved in additional remodeling in the pool area. Logistics of getting to the pool area with equipment was discussed and a plan devised to access the area from the south end of the pool, leading to the plaza with a run of approximately 300 feet of injection hose into the pool area.

Heat coils in the deck slabs were located and properly marked in a grid of safe zones using a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system. This helped insure that no coils would be damaged during the injection process. Once the season officially closed in March, the pool was drained during the night and crews began working bright and early the next morning.

Results from the DCP tests showed unstable soil as far as 9 feet below the pool area. Injection of approximately 7,000 pounds of a CST geopolymer was estimated to properly densify and stabilize the soil, as well as realign the overlying slabs and deck areas.

Crews began by mapping out the areas to be treated. A CST geo-polymer was then injected through a pattern of 5/8 inch holes, filling voids beneath the pool & pool stairs, and re-aligning the pool deck and hot tub slab areas. CST crews completed the project in 2 days, which kept other contractors performing projects on their work schedule with no delays. The owners and Engineers of the Mountainside Marriott were very pleased with the results of CST’s precision repairs.

Benefits:

  • Realignment of the deck slabs eliminated trip hazards.
  • No excavation required for repair work to be completed.
  • Stabilization of the underlying soil arrested future settlement in the areas.
  • Increased the longevity of the pool and surrounding deck.

The Mangy Moose Restaurant – Jackson Hole, WY

Since opening in 1967 at the base of Jackson Hole’s new ski resort, the Mangy Moose has been a prominent local landmark along Village Drive in Teton Village, Jackson Hole Wyoming. The 30,000 square foot building houses a restaurant, saloon, grocery market, and retail space. It has long been a favorite of locals and the many visitors touring throughout this area.

The owner of the Mangy Moose, Jim Terry, had contacted Nelson Engineering in Jackson, Wyoming about settlement that had occurred in the building. It was discovered, by cutting a hole through the concrete slab on the ground floor of the building, that a sewer line leak from a dish washer had softened the supporting soils of the foundation and columns. Warped wooden beams in areas of the building indicated that the leak had likely gone undetected for a number of years, causing settlement and compromising the structural integrity of the building’s foundation.
Concrete Stabilization Technologies’ Regional Engineer, Roy Mathis, was contacted by Robert Norton, P.E., of Nelson Engineering concerning the settlement issues the building was experiencing and to help design a repair option that would effectively stabilize and preserve the building’s foundation.

After review of plans and photographs, a site visit and survey were performed by Roy Mathis and Kelly Schild. Initial soil density tests were performed and analyzed. Additional concerns were raised during excavation for the sewer line repair. Cracks in the mortar and a change in slope at one of the columns indicated the pivot point of the settlement.

Two repair options and pricing were presented for mitigation to stabilize the soils and get a slight lift. One option to stabilize the soil only, and a second option to obtain a partial lift of the foundation, columns, and floor. It was desirable to obtain a maximum lift without causing additional distress to the building; a full lift was not recommended however, due to the time warped timbers, and not wanting to cause additional distress to the building. The work proposal to stabilize and perform the partial lift was accepted and work scheduled for the following week. With ski season quickly approaching and final preparations being made, it was very important to the owner that repairs be completed in a timely manner.

CST Project Superintendent Tomas Ramos, and manager David Yoder met on site on November 13th to discuss de-tails of the planned repair. Work began the same day as the crew set probes and prepared the injection layout. Extent and depth of the weakened soils were determined during drilling and probe placement. Injection depths and areas were determined to assure a permanent and long lasting solution.

Inclement weather, two feet of new snow, and minus twenty degrees halted work the following day as equip-ment would not start in the freezing temps. The crew got an early start on day three, however, and after finishing probe placement, shot an initial survey, and began injections using the CST technologies. Injections were made directly below the columns and spread footers with emphasis on the weak soil zones. Existing voids were filled, and soil stabilized as crews completed repairs. All injections were completed from the interior of the building with very little disruption to owners and management. The project was completed on time and on budget, allowing owners to complete last minute details before welcoming skiers and tourists for the 2014 winter ski season. By using the CST technologies, the long lasting repairs provided a tremendous cost savings to the owners and very little disruption to their pre-ski season preparations. Stabilization of the building’s foundation will provide for many more years of use and enjoyment of this famous local landmark.

Fox Hall Apartments – Las Vegas, NV

Concrete Stabilization Technologies, Inc. was contacted by Mr. Bill Sublette P.E., Owner of Foundation Stabilization, Inc., Las Vegas, NV concerning the multi-unit Fox Hall Apartment Complex at 1600 E. University Avenue in Las Vegas. Mr. Ed Russ had contacted Mr. Sublette concerning the remediation of this property. Mr. Sublette in turn contacted Roy Mathis of CST for help in determining the best solution for repairs of the property, utilizing the advanced CST Technologies.

The complex had experienced significant distress and settlement due to the solubility of subsurface soils which had produced a significant settlement of 6.25 inches on the one corner of the building and a differential settlement of over 5 inches of the concrete floor slabs. Initially one unit of the complex was identified for repair. Two additional units were also included in the project.

Factors for Consideration

Significant distress of the property had occurred due to the solubility of the subsurface soils. Settlement differential of over 5 inches on the concrete floor slab and exterior footings had produced cavities or voids in the underlying subsurface soils. Stress on the slabs had not only produced significant cracking in the interior and exterior walls and floor slabs, but also caused problems with waste lines and exterior walkways of the units. Three options were considered for repairs. Helical Piers. Micro Piles, and CST’s deep injection process.

Solution

The foundation remediation for the Fox Hall Apartments utilized injection of CST Expanding Structural Polymer in the top 5 to 7 feet of sub grade soil beneath the exterior continuous wall footing and interior slabs. The injection of the CST ESP densified the soluble silty sands and clays in the top 5 to 7 feet of sub grade soils beneath the load bearing foundations and the result was lifting of the load bearing foundations. Additionally, areas under the distressed slab were injected with CST ESP to lift and re-level the concrete floor slabs, and densify those areas of the subgrades that had low densities and porosities (voids). The process filled the voids without adding additional weight. The ESP works to interlock soils in place, and the impervious nature of the product helps to prevent future water migration into the soils which would prevent any future extension of soil collapse.

Areas of low density beneath the slab were determined by using a dynamic field penetrometer. The process was coordinated to minimize cracking in the floor slab and to ensure that the floating foundation was not lifted off the exterior continuous wall footings interior notch.

Multiple locations and depths were injected and voids filled beneath the floor slabs. Full time observation and monitoring of the injection and lift were necessary to ensure no additional cracking of the floor slabs in the units.

Results

Three apartment units were successfully repaired with one corner of the foundation being lifted 6 1/4 inches and another corner lifted 3 1/2 inches. Voids were filled and soils stabilized beneath the concrete slabs. Slabs were realigned and lifted to original grade with minimal disturbance to tenants and landscape features. The original integrity of the uniform foundation system was maintained by utilizing CST’s technologies. Work was completed in less than a week and the owner and manager of the property was very pleased with the result.

Benefits

Time Savings: Repairs were made quickly. The non-intrusive nature of the repair process resulted in minimal disturbance to landscaping & tenants of the apartment complex.

Longevity: The integrity of the original uniform foundation system was maintained by using CST’s Technologies. The foundation lift and stabilization were made without mixing a deep foundation design with the original spread foundation. The migrating nature of CST Expanding Structural Polymer not only filled voids, but interlocked soils, helping to increase stability of sub grade soils. The impervious nature of the material will prevent future water migration into the soils & prevent extension of soil collapse.

Middle School Chiller Lift – Denver, CO

A Denver, Colorado, middle school experienced the effects of expansive soil on a pair of large, 16 ton ice chiller thermal storage units used for numerous school refrigeration needs. Each storage unit was placed on independent, 32,000 lb. reinforced concrete pads to maintain a continuous, even elevation for support and proper unit function. Substantial damage and malfunction to each unit was highly probable if the supporting concrete pad was uneven.

Expansive soils shifted beneath the concrete support pads causing an unsatisfactory level for the chiller units to continue functioning. To avoid damage to the units, both were taken out of service until a repair plan was initiated. The concern for the school district was to have the chiller units functioning at capacity, supported on level concrete pads in time for the upcoming school year.

Due to the cost and downtime for the school and potential hazard of damaging each unit through relocation, a choice was made to use a high-density, polyurethane grouting technique. CST’s Deep Injection Process densifies weak soil zones at specified depths to resupport each pad. This process solved three main concerns:

  1. Eliminate relocation of the units
  2. Stabilized volatile soils
  3. Level the units to 3/4” tolerance to restore functionality and capability.

After elevation profiles were taken, injection locations were determined to stabilize weak soil strata and realign the chiller units. Operators injected at depths of 3 feet at an angle to allow greater material coverage for maximum unit stability.

After stabilizing the weakest soil zones, additional injections realigned the pads within the 3/4” tolerance for the ice chillers to function properly without damaging each unit.

American Furniture Warehouse Slab Stabilization – Longmont, CO

Concrete Stabilization Technologies was contacted by Opus Northwest, LLC, concerning American Furniture Warehouse’s Longmont Colorado distribution location. The distribution warehouse was experiencing problems with the facility’s floor slabs. The warehouse floor slabs had deflection at the construction control joints caused by slab curl. When the edges or corners of a slab curl up, often at construction joints, it’s caused by concrete at the top of the slab shrinking or contracting faster than concrete at the bottom. Drying shrinkage is the usual cause. Water leaves the top surface of the slab faster than it leaves the bottom, creating shrinkage forces that can raise slab edges or corners.

CST used a dial gauge micrometer at the construction control joints to monitor slab deflection during load transfer from fork-lift traffic. Slab deflection was approximately 1/8” prior to slab under sealing and stabilization with CST expanding structural polymer. The uneven floor slabs were causing excessive wear and tear to the facilities forklift and loading equipment used on a daily basis in the warehouse and also creating a trip hazard for employees working in the facility. It was determined that 222 of the warehouse floor slabs, approximately 50,000 square feet of floor, would need to be stabilized.

Stabilization of the warehouse slabs began with crews mapping out, drilling, and placing 5/8 Inch injection probes through the concrete slabs.

CST polymer was injected in a pattern of every 4 feet below the slabs, filling voids, stabilizing, and providing a positive seal between the underlying soils and the concrete slabs.

Different sections of the warehouse floor area were stabilized over the course of the next eight days. Slab deflection was tested with forklift traffic after CST polymer injections. Zero movement on the dial gauge micrometer verified that the slabs were completely stabilized, thus extending the service life of the existing slab. On the five year inspection in November of 2014, no additional settlement or deflection has occurred since CST completed the stabilization of the Longmont American Furniture Ware-house in June of 2009.

Benefits of Slab Stabilization & Under Sealing using CST Expanding Structural Polymers:

  • Eliminates high costs associated with tearing out and replacing faulted concrete.
  • Provides a positive seal between underlying soils and existing concrete slabs, stabilizing and increasing the use life of the existing concrete.
  • Little to no disruption to business operations. CST polymer cures quickly, within approximately 15 minutes after injection. This allows for full use of the treated areas, immediately after repairs are completed.
  • State of the art equipment and highly trained technicians provide quick, clean, and surgically precise repairs.
  • Long lasting, environmentally safe, hydro-insensitive material has no negative impact on surrounding soils or adjacent water supplies.
  • High resistance to manufacturing chemicals and oils.
  • Puts businesses in control of repair and restoration requirements of problems associated with industrial, commercial, and residential concrete assets.

LDS Meeting House – Malta, ID

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Second Ward Meeting House, located in Malta Idaho, had been foundation settlement and movement in portions of the building, resulting in ongoing damage to the structure.

In the spring of 2014, LDS structural engineer, Chris Barker contacted CST’s Utah Field Consultant, Jonathan George, concerning a repair plan for the structure.

Malta Idaho is a small community located in south central Idaho. Agriculture is one of the main industries in this area. Water being pulled from aquifers for irrigation throughout the area has lowered the water table. With change to the ground water and water table below the surface, pressure areas change and shifting of soil and rock below the surface take place. Sometimes, this occurs at depths very far below the surface.

Engineering reports indicated that settlement and shifting of the soils at a considerable depth, as suspected, were likely the cause of the extensive foundation settlement and sideways movement occurring at the LDS building.

A measuring device which had been installed on the building in early spring of 2014 showed movement of 3 millimeters over a period of 4-5 months.

CST met with the LDS maintenance personnel on site and performed investigative Dynamic Cone Penetrometer tests.

Test results determined that most of the settlement was not related to the upper 15 feet of soils, lending support to the conclusion that movement was coming from considerable depth.

After a thorough site investigation and analysis of soil tests, CST proposed to employ the CST deep injection method in order to lift and stabilize the building’s foundation both around the perimeter of the building and the load bearing footers and walls on the interior. DCP tests verified soil conditions in order to create an engineered plan to address the weaker zone of soils.

Soils directly below the foundation were dry and ideal for effectively lifting and stabilizing the structure to mitigate future movement and damage.

On May 5, 2015 CST crews arrived on site. A walkthrough was made to identify all crack openings and other damage that had been caused by the settlement and sideways movement of the building. CST’s crew members began drilling injection holes on the exterior of the building near the foundation to identify the spread footer. Probes were then placed on 4 foot centers approximately 3’ to 4’ below the spread footer. Other members of the crew began drilling and preparing interior injection holes and probes and drafting the exterior survey.

On day two, crews prepared equipment to begin injections and starting on the west exterior corner, technicians began injecting structural polymer at set locations. The foundation responded and began moving quickly. Some of the exist-ing cracks began to close at this point. Crews moved back and forth in the west corner section until a total lift of 3 ½ inches was accomplished on the exterior portion of the foundation.

On the final day, crews moved to the interior of the building and complete injections to lift the slab to target elevation.

Result: The load bearing wall was lifted, stabilized and void fill completed in the treated areas. As a result, existing cracks were closed in damaged areas. Movement of the building was greatly arrested and mitigated against further structural damage. All work was completed in three shifts.

Benefit: The CST technologies require no excavation and are performed with very little disturbance or mess. Repairs are made in days, not weeks or months. No need to vacate buildings and treated areas may be used immediately following repairs.